(Question and Answer): (2.) Compare planned and reactive change. What are the advantages of planned

(2.) Compare planned and reactive change. What are the advantages of planned change, as compared to reactive change?

(4.) In a brief sentence or just a pharse, describe each of the OD techniques.

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2)Proactive change involves actively attempting to make alterations to the work place and its practices. Companies that take a proactive approach to change are often trying to avoid a potential future threat or to capitalize on a potential future opportunity. Reactive change occurs when an organization makes changes in its practices after some threat or opportunity has already occurred. As an example of the difference, assume that a hotel executive learns about the increase in the number of Americans who want to travel with their pets. The hotel executive creates a plan to reserve certain rooms in many hotel locations for travelers with pets and to advertise this new amenity, even before travelers begin asking about such accommodations. This would be a proactive response to change because it was made in anticipation of customer demand. However, a reactive approach to change would occur if hotel executives had waited to enact such a change until many hotel managers had received repeated requests from guests to accommodate their pets and were denied rooms.

Advantages

Managers and employees are aware of potential changes in advance.

Time is available to evaluate the potential impact of the changes on the organisation.

It may be possible to take action to influence the nature of the change, e.g. through lobbying, exerting market influence, etc.

Alternative options can be considered for responding to the change.

Time is available to develop a preferred plan of action for responding to the change that will maximise the advantage to the organisation in situations where the change will benefit the organisation (an opportunity), or minimise any negative impact from changes that are threats to the organisation.

Crisis management is avoided.

Employees have greater respect for their managers.

Greater control of the organisation’s destiny is in the hands of its leaders.

4)OD Techniques

An organization will work together with a team of change agents in order to draft up the intervention plan and agree on the changes and techniques that are to be implemented. The following activities aim to help both organizations and employees get closer to and fulfill their potential.

1. Survey feedback

The survey technique involves data be collected via a questionnaire. The collected information is meant to help managers make decisions. The answers to the survey feedback will range from quality of work, working condition, working hours, salaries, and employees’ attitude in relation to all of the above.

2. Team building

Team buildings have been increasing in popularity as an independent component of Organizational Development. Within OD, team buildings are designed to improve the capacity of the organization’s members of working together in a harmonious environment. Organizational effectiveness can be boosted through enhancing work group dynamics and promoting a safe and understanding working place.

3. Sensitivity Training

One of the most popular Organizational Development techniques, sensitivity training asks employees to interact in order to better understand each other. As a result, team members get better acquainted, form bonds, cease to be judgmental and prone to become more motivated and efficient in the working environment.

4. Brain Storming

This Organizational Development technique involves six to eight managers coming together and pitching ideas for solving a problem. Brain Storming aims to promote creative thinking, whilst bringing team leaders together and helping them engage in a lucrative discussion of fixing a common issue. The participants are required to critically assess the matter that is put forward. They are then asked to contribute new ideas or new angles on tackling the conflict. The principle behind brain storming is that managers come together and build a plan based on all of their suggestions.

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