2 discussion replies
Instructions: In at least 150 words for each reply , building upon the information or offer a contrasting viewpoint. The reply must be substantive, must use two peer reviewed articles that are different from the ones listed below and are between 2018-2021, and must further the discussion with the DOI in the information area. Discussion 1 Information to be used below:
1. What are the qualities and characteristics of a good research question?
A research question implies uncertainty regarding something in the society or community that researchers want to deal with by making various measurements on their subjects or study. It is important to note that there are many research questions, and they cannot be exhausted even as researchers succeed in offering good answers to some of them (Doody and Bailey 2016). The following are characteristics of a good research question.
A good research question should be well-grounded in the various empirical and theoretical knowledge. It should also set the context of the study, thereby enabling the researchers to establish the theme matter. The emphasis of the research question should e on the requirements of the research evidence aimed at offering answers and conclusions (Doody and Bailey 2016). Additionally, the research question should be attainable and doable within a specific limitation of resources such as money, time, and capacities. It should also be something worth undertaking.
2. Describe what makes a research question effective.
There exist no universally determined criteria for an effective research question. An effective research question for biology differs from that of history. However, in all disciplines, an effective research question should be focused and clear. This means that the research question must state what the researcher requires to do. It should also not be too narrow nor too broad (White 2017). This means that the research question should consist of a necessary scope. It should also not be too easy to answer. For instance, the research question should not be a no or yes question. It should also be researchable in that there must have necessary research materials such as journal articles and academic books.
3. Identify what can make a research question weak and why?
A weak research question usually requires a simple answer, which is a no or yes answers. A research question that anticipates a no or yes answer can cause challenges as it focuses only on one option. A weak research question also uses contentious, loaded, or vague terms. They apply loaded terms that may need numerous explanations and justification when a less loaded terminology may exist that might work better (King and Walsh 2015). Additionally, a weak research question is unfocused and fuzzy. This means that it does not delineate how, when, who, or what or a combination of all these.
4. Explain how a researcher can develop a robust set of research questions?
To develop a robust set of research questions, a researcher is expected to write a single question to guide his thinking and reading. The answer they develop is their thesis statement which means the central position or assertation that the paper is expected to argue for. The process of developing a robust set of research questions follows the following steps, as highlighted by McCombes (2019). Firstly, the researcher is expected to select a broad topic. He should then perform preliminary reading aimed at establishing the topical issues and debates. The third step is narrowing down to a specific niche that they will emphasize. Lastly, they should identify theoretical or practical research problems that they aim at addressing.
5. What are the qualities and characteristics of a good interview or survey questions?
The following are characteristics of a good interview. Firstly, the researcher should ensure that the research questions are simple and clear. The researchers are also expected to establish an effective checklist of the questions that will be asked. They should also show the purpose and importance of the interview. A good interview should also begin with a neutral question to facilitate information flow (Roulston 2014). it should also consist of open-ended questions to allow the interview respondents to select their answers.
Doody, O., & Bailey, M. E. (2016). Setting a research question, aim, and objective: nurse researcher, 23(4).
King, G., & Walsh, D. J. (2015). Good research and bad research: extending Zimile's criticism. Early childhood research quarterly, 8(3), 397-401.
McCombes, S. (2019). Developing strong research questions. Dosegljivo: https://www. scribbr. com/research-process/research-questions/[Dostopano: 23. 7. 2020].
Roulston, K. (2014). Interactional problems in research interviews. Qualitative Research, 14(3), 277-293.
White, P. (2017). Developing research questions. Macmillan International Higher Education.
Discussion 2 Information to be used below:
Research Questions Versus Interview Questions
Whether a question is meant to elicit information from an interview or to further research, each has its own purpose and characteristics (Robson & McCartan, 2016). Interview questions are meant to extract information from a subject (Robson & McCartan, 2016), while research questions are utilized to focus a project in a specific direction and give it purpose (Lowes, 2021).
Qualities and Characteristics of Good Research Questions
A good and effective research question defines the project or subject of the research (Robson & McCartan, 2016) by identifying a gap in the topic knowledge (Ravindra & Kestle, 2019), sets boundaries (Robson & McCartan, 2016), gives the project focus and direction (Robson & McCartan, 2016) by pruning the excess unnecessary knowledge (Vandenbroucke & Pearce, 2018), and defines success or when the goal of the research project has been achieved (Robson & McCartan, 2016).
Characteristics of an Effective Research Question
Specific characteristics of effective research questions are that they are not trivial but are clear and unambiguous while showing the purpose of the project through being answerable (Robson & McCartan, 2016). As reported by Ravindra and Kestle (2019), Hulley et al. (2013) developed the FINER acronym (feasible, interesting, novel, ethical, and relevant) (Vandenbroucke & Pearce, 2018) for describing the criteria in developing a good research question. The FINER criteria consider if the subject is ‘feasible’ (Fandino, 2019; Hulley et al., 2013; Ravindra & Kestle, 2019; Vandenbroucke & Pearce, 2018), conveys a topic of ‘interest’ (Fandino, 2019; Hulley et al., 2013; Ravindra & Kestle, 2019; Vandenbroucke & Pearce, 2018), entails a ‘novel’ concept (Fandino, 2019; Hulley et al., 2013; Ravindra & Kestle, 2019; Vandenbroucke & Pearce, 2018), is an ‘ethical’ field of study (Fandino, 2019; Hulley et al., 2013; Ravindra & Kestle, 2019; Vandenbroucke & Pearce, 2018), and is ‘relevant’ to the research topic (Fandino, 2019; Hulley et al., 2013; Ravindra & Kestle, 2019; Vandenbroucke & Pearce, 2018). The PICOT format (Population, Intervention, Comparator, Outcome, and Time frame) (Abbade et al., 2017; Fandino, 2019; Ravindra & Kestle, 2019; Vandenbroucke & Pearce, 2018), although most applicable for pragmatic research, may be utilized for research dealing with evidence-based medicine involving random control trials (RCTs) (Abbade et al., 2017; Ravindra & Kestle, 2019; Vandenbroucke & Pearce, 2018) and can be utilized in the development of effective research questions (Abbade et al., 2017). While a good hypothesis is critical, it is of little value without quality research questions (Knottnerus & Tugwell, 2019).
Characteristics of a Weak Research Question
A weak research question is one that is too broad and leads the research in the wrong direction (Knottnerus & Tugwell, 2019). A research question that has not been well-researched through a thorough review of the literature can mislead the research into an opposing direction (Fandino, 2019). Formulation of a focused research question can be difficult even for a seasoned researcher (Fandino, 2019), especially if the questions lead in an unethical direction or are not relevant to the research subject (Fandino, 2019). Bandholm et al. (2017) emphasized the importance of starting with the endpoint in mind to ensure the research questions are focused instead of being too general. Pitfalls of developing quality research questions involve asking questions that have already been answered (Robson & McCartan, 2016), posing questions that cannot be answered (Robson & McCartan, 2016), or deciding on the method/design or findings/impact prior to having all the relevant research (Robson & McCartan, 2016).
How a Researcher Can Develop a Robust Set of Research Questions
Understanding the endpoint of the research from the beginning of the project is imperative to developing an effective research question or set of research questions (Bandholm et al., 2017; Fandino, 2019). Bradbury et al. (2019) examined how action research could be a catalyst to successfully ignite the participation of others in the research project.
Qualities and Characteristics of Good Interview or Survey Questions
The skill and expertise of the researcher along with the reliability of the interview questions determine the quality and usefulness of the data collected (Roberts, 2020). For an interview to be conducted in a structured manner requires questions to be empirically addressed regarding the order and length of the interview questions (Jenkins & Kim, 2018). Questions to be avoided are those which are too long, biased, double-barrelled, leading, or use jargon (Robson & McCartan, 2016). The three main types of interview questions are open, closed, or scale (Robson & McCartan, 2016) with open-ended questions allowing for the collection of more in-depth data which can give a clearer insight into the true meaning of the respondent’s answers (Robson & McCartan, 2016).