Practical Pressures Affecting Public Sector Budgeting COLLAPSE Practical Pressures Affecting Public Sector Budgeting The public sector has always been under pressure to provide public goods to the citizens that they serve. The public roads, highways, and schools are some to say the least. Everyone benefits from these goods. Some benefit more than others. Some may say that they also contribute more than most. People have long been aware that the nature of goods has a bearing upon human welfare. Aristole, for example observed: “that which is common to the greatest number has the least care bestowed upon it. “Within the last two decades, am extensive literature has developed on the characteristics that distinguish public or collective goods from private or individual goods (Cole, 2018). Providing more public services with less public spending is an ongoing challenge for all OECD member countries which is becoming increasingly important in the context of ageing. Cross-country comparisons could be useful to identify best practices in delivering public services in a cost-effective manner (Lonti & Joumard, 2007). Consequences of two externalities and their impact on public sector budgeting. It takes a great deal of money in efforts to avoid water pollution. Water is one of the single most used substances on earth. Maintaining a healthy amount of potable water is not easy and not cheap. This is a resource that must be readily available at all cost. So, as you can imagine it can eat up some of the budget. Clean water is a key factor for economic growth. Deteriorating water quality is stalling economic growth, worsening health conditions, reducing food production, and exacerbating poverty in many countries,” said World Bank Group President David Malpass. Air pollution also is an externality that does affect public sector budgeting. It is one that has attracted a lot of public interest in the last several decades. Air pollution stands as the most widely valued aspect of environmental quality, where studies have documented negative relationships between life satisfaction and particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide (Welsch, 2002, 2006; Mackerron & Mourato, 2009; Menz & Welsch, 2010; Luechinger, 2010; Ferreira et al., 2013). The cost of air pollution is astronomical! Greenpeace Southeast Asia and the Centre for Research on Energy and Clean Air have released a new report about the costs of air pollution from fossil fuels, both human and economic. Burning gas, coal, and oil results in three times as many deaths as road traffic accidents worldwide and it is estimated that air pollution has a $2.9 trillion economic cost, equating to 3.3 percent of the world’s GDP. In 2018, the report estimates that it was linked to 4.5 million deaths with PM2.5 pollution also responsible for 1.8 billion days of work absence, 4 million new cases of child asthma and 2 million preterm births (McCarthy, 2020). Most practical way to the study the fiscal impact of public sector budgeting The public budget is redolent of a technical, quantitative text that refers to expenditures and revenue-collection decisions made in each time frame at central or local levels of government. Yet, budget is not only a technical, but also a political text. After all, the budget reflects the public preferences and priorities of those members of society who will be served by and included in funding of activities. Given the competitive demands existing despite constrained resources, the budgetary process, namely the allocation of resources, may basically be expressed as a political undertaking that is shaped by the needs and preferences of the electorate, as perceived by politicians (Ipek, 2019). Performance evaluation allows citizens and taxpayers to hold policymakers and administrators in governmental organizations accountable for their actions. Because accountability to citizens often is stated explicitly in state laws and state constitutions, it is a cornerstone of budgeting and financial reporting (Johnson, 2003). There are many ways to analyze a budget. The best way can sometimes be a matter of preference. Five of the different types of budgets that can be used to study the impact of a budget include line-item, or “traditional,” budgeting; performance budgeting; program and planning (“programming”) budgeting (PPB); zero-based budgeting (ZBB); and site-based budgeting (Johnson, 2003). Biblical Junction Luke 14:28-30 – Suppose one of you wants to build a tower. … This Biblical saying is about budgeting. You know you need to cover the cost of necessities first – but those costs do not always come up right away, so you need to plan for them or make a budget. Just as in the scripture in Luke 14:28-30 states we must be careful to plan and budget for what we desire to create and take care of. Most budgets must be addressed several times and studied; In the public sector many issues arise that can affect your budget. It is important to constantly be evaluating what is working and what needs to be tweaked in efforts of keeping a well-balanced and healthy budget. REFERENCES Cole, D. H. (n.d.). Elinor ostrom and the bloomington school of political economy (6th ed.). Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group Challenges and Opportunities. OECD Journal on Budgeting, 7(1), 41- http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1787/budget-v7-art6-en Chapter 3: Budgeting, financial accounting for local and state school systems, 2003 edition. (2003). Financial Accounting for Local and state School sysytems. https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2004/h2r2/ch_3.asp Curristine, T., Lonti, Z., & Joumard, I. (2007). Improving Public Sector Efficiency: Dolan, P., & Laffan, K. (2016). Bad Air Days: The Effects of Air Quality on Different Measures of Subjective Well-Being. Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis, 7(1), 147-195. http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.liberty.edu/10.1017/bca.2016.7 Ayse Sahin İpek, E. (2019). New approaches in public budgeting. In Public economics and finance. IntechOpen. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.82371 McCarthy, N. (n.d.). This is the global economic cost of air pollution. World Economic Forum. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/02/the-economic-burden-of-air-pollution Welsch , Heinz (2006 ). Environment and Happiness: Valuation of Air Pollution Using Life Satisfaction Data . Ecological Economics , 58 , 801 -813 .10.1016/j.ecolecon.2005.09.006 Please reply to this student’s forum with agrbcqee or disagree and why
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