NOTE: If your topic simply does not want to conform to the Problem/solution format, and some topics just don’t, contact me right away so we can discuss an appropriate alternative argument mode.( I will be writing a standard argument essay with points, counter points, concessions, and rebottles.) What is a Problem/Solution Essay? Problem/solution is a form of argument in which you examine a problem and attempt to convince your target audience that it is an important issue, analyze the ideas others have for solutions (as counterpoints to your own solution), and present a solution you believe will be successful. It is imperative that you support your solution in depth. You may find that you need to do just a little more research at this point, but most of that will be behind you. Of course, any additional sources you investigate need to be added to your annotated bibliography. Ultimately, you will present your solution as a strong and viable possibility. What is a Synthesis Essay? In a synthesis essay, your numerous sources “talk to each other” as you examine in depth the reasons for your stance and the potential shortcomings of the ideas you have rejected as less worthy. It is crucial that you have a solid understanding of the research you will use, which is why you have been working for the past several weeks doing research, reading and annotating your sources, creating a mini critique for each in the form of an annotated bibliography, and organizing your research into a fact finding essay. Now that you have all of this background, you are ready to discuss, compare, contrast, and analyze it for your reader. This is the synthesis part of the essay. It began in your fact finding essay and continues here with a more pointed focus. How do I begin? There are several steps to get you ready to draft this essay: Free-write a brainstorm journal wherein you will think about your research with a renewed purpose: persuading your target audience that the problem is important, there are solutions that have been tried or suggested that you are quite certain have not or will not work, and your solution is the one to use. Define your TARGET audience in a detailed paragraph. Use the Audience Discovery handout as a guide. Your peers and I should be able to see a mental picture of them. Organize your research according to the points you have. Using color on a draft of your fact finding essay can help create a visual to work from as you create this chart. Use a different color for each section. For example, if you will need three sections in order to establish the problem, use pink for one, green for another, and yellow for the third. Establishing the problem is generally the longest portion of your essay. Then use purple, orange, and blue for your solutions that don’t work section, etc. Clearly, you don’t need to use my color choices, and you will likely have more/different section/paragraph needs; however, using these same colors to look through your annotations on your research documents can also be a real time saver and help you remember to include ALL of the great info you have found and see relationships between sources that might not have sprung to mind yet. Then you will be ready to create a simple chart (an aid to creating a solid writing plan). This might be on several sheets of notebook paper in list form or an actual chart on a bigger sheet of paper. First present the problem— Who says it is a problem? How does each source support the claim that it is indeed a problem? Studies? Experiments? Expert opinions? What else? Next, examine the solutions that are being used or have been tried, but are not working—who will you reference as you discuss each of these less than optimum solutions? What solutions are being studied, attempted, have already failed but might still be in use? What evidence do you have to show that these are not the best solutions? Studies? Experiments? Expert opinions? Anecdotal evidence from a quality source? What else? Finally, explore your solution— Why do you believe it can or will work? Be specific and clear. Give solid, easily understandable details. Include evidence that influences your solution idea and that supports its feasibility. If it is already started somewhere, what evidence is available to support your claim that it is best? Studies? Experiments? Expert opinions? Anecdotal evidence from a quality source? What else? If it is being used in one similar situation, but not in the region you are writing about, how might it need to be adapted to work in the place you have chosen to focus on? Generate a detailed writing plan using the information from your “chart”. In each body paragraph, list the sources you will use. This will help you to remember in order to clearly synthesize the information you have discovered. The hook and handshake section of your introduction should introduce your topic, explain the problem, and allude to solutions that are not working. The thesis is where you will propose your own solution. Some ideas to format it: __(fill in your solution)______ is the most effective way to solve _(fill in the problem in a few words)___. Based on __(fill in your info here—i.e. recent studies, recent research, longitudinal studies, etc.)__ , the evidence strongly suggests that __(fill in your solution)__ is (better, more efficient, more effective) for solving _(fill in the problem in a few words)___. While you might find it helpful to include I believe in your thesis to get it started, be sure to rephrase it into a more formal, third person claim for your draft. (You usually just need to remove I believe.) There should be several body paragraphs (more than 3 or 4!) setting up the problem for your audience and showing that it is actually a problem based on your quality research. There should be several body paragraphs (more than 3 or 4!) that examine and analyze solutions that you have ruled out as ineffective; these paragraphs should have abundant evidence as to why the less quality solutions did or will not work. There should be several body paragraphs (two or three are often plenty here) presenting and analyzing your solution. It will be imperative that you show your target audience abundant evidence to support this as the best solution. Remember, you are attempting to persuade them to agree with your point of view on this. Don’t skimp. The conclusion will do its usual job of returning to the thesis claim idea and drawing solid conclusions based on your evidence throughout the essay. No new evidence in a conclusion! It should end on a clear and manageable call to action. This call to action will tie directly in with your presentation as your final exam (step 6). ☺ What are the specific requirements of this essay? This essay will be around 10-15 pages in MLA format including one-inch margins and typed in Calibri 12. There will be a works cited (not included in the page requirement above). It must include all of the following: The final draft must include at least 12-15 quality academic sources from your annotated bibliography. You must use your interview. It is the primary source generated by you. You must rely most heavily on primary sources. If you are using a secondary source, the evaluation portion of your annotated bibliography entry should give the reader a clue as to why the secondary source is being used. The annotated bibliography is a separate document. Do not include the annotations here. Just copy and paste the works cited entries of the sources you actually used in your argument into the works cited page. You may use less quality sources as anecdotal evidence, but only 3-4 of these count toward your 12-15 sources above and they should be used sparingly and only as needed to generate an appeal to pathos or as an example to support a quality appeal to ethos or logos. Be sure they are included in your annotated bibliography. ALL sources in your works cited list must be used and cited in the body of your essay either through quotes, paraphrases, or very brief summaries. Likewise, all information in your essay must refer back to an item on your works cited list. In short, they must match up. There must be abundant evidence from your sources throughout the essay in the form of quotes, paraphrases, synthesized discussion, and brief summaries. Your voice must, however, be in command and in control as the leading voice in the essay. All quotes, paraphrases, or summaries must be set up with discussion by you that leads into them and discussion that explains their value as support for your claim. (quotes sandwiches) When you synthesize your sources (discuss those sources that agree or disagree), be sure to list all of them either in an “according to” style opening or in the parenthetical at the end of the evidence. When you introduce evidence offered by experts or from studies, be sure to give the full name, title, and any additional credentials the first time you introduce them. After that, the last name or study name is sufficient. While long quotes can add quality understanding at times, be very selective about what you choose to receive that kind of space in your essay. Limit long quotes to two. Your final annotated bibliography will be due at the same time as the final draft of this essay. See the annotated Bibliography assignment for the details on it. Will you be drawing language from your fact-finding essay? Of course! They are, in fact, elaborate pre-writes and preparation for this final essay; however, you will be adding, selecting (carefully), synthesizing, and polishing as well. Copy and paste may work for some sections, but be careful not to fall into a trap of rewriting your fact finding essay as that will not meet the requirements of this argumentative assignment. You will receive feedback along the way both from your peers and from me as you post your various writing process steps on Canvas. I am in need of a rough draft and have already made the writing plan which will be included in the materials along with my fact finding essay and annotated bibliography. All information sourced should come soley from the annotated bibliography provided. I agree with the interaction of Ai in health care and thibcqnk it has more benefits than risks.
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