Full Chemistry lab report Ionic and covalent bonds must follow all instructions

You are going to do the lab as indicated above, including the formal lab report. There is also a RUBRIC which I will be using to grade the lab report.

Question and procedure:

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Must clearly identify the question to be answered during the lab. The procedures are

listed with clear and numbered steps. Must use complete sentences.

Data: The data are accurately collected and data tables are labeled properly and neatly

displayed.

Analysis and conclusion:

You must explain the relationship between the variables in the experiment, and explain any trends or patterns. Include a reason why you are seeing these trends. You can make predictions about what might happen if part of the lab were changed or a way you could change the lab design. The conclusion must discuss whether the findings of the lab support the hypothesis and what was generally learned from the experiment. You should

also include any possible sources of error in the experiment.

Organization:

Mechanics and Conventions:

Pre-Lab Information

Purpose Explore the properties of chemical substances that can be used to identify the types of bonds in a chemical substance using a laboratory procedure.

Time Approximately 45 minutes

Question Based on a substance’s properties, how can you determine whether its bonds are ionic
or covalent?

Hypothesis If a substance is solid at room temperature, has a crystalline structure, dissolves easily in water, and conducts electricity well, then it likely contains ionic bonds. Otherwise, it likely contains covalent bonds.

Summary You will collect data for the appearance, solubility in water, and conductivity of four substances to determine whether the substances have ionic or covalent bonds.

Safety

§ Always wear safety goggles and a lab gown while performing an experiment.

§ Wear gloves when handling any solid or liquid chemicals.

§ Never smell a chemical directly. Smell a chemical only by wafting.

§ Use caution when handling the conductivity apparatus. Do not touch the exposed leads.

§ Check glassware, such as your beaker, for cracks and chips prior to use.

§ Report all accidents – no matter how big or small – to your teacher.

Procedure

Step 1: Gather Materials.

§ five 25 mL beakers

§ spoon

§ stirring rod

§ 10 mL graduated cylinder

§ distilled water in a wash bottle

§ conductivity apparatus

§ 5 mL oil

§ 2 g cornstarch

§ 2 g sodium chloride

§ 2 g sodium bicarbonate

Repeat steps 2–4 for each of the following: 5 mL of oil and 2g each of cornstarch, sodium chloride, and sodium bicarbonate.

Step 2: Note State and Appearance.

Put the substance in a 25 mL beaker.

Observe and record in the data table its state of matter, appearance, and texture and whether it has a crystalline structure.

Step 3: Determine Solubility in Water.

a) Add distilled water to the beaker until the volume totals 15 mL.

b) Use the stirring rod to stir for 3 minutes.

c) Record the amount of oil that dissolved—all, some, a little, or none.

Step 4: Determine Conductivity.

a) Make sure the conductivity apparatus is ready. The electricity should be turned off.

b) Spray a small amount of distilled water on the electrical leads of the conductivity apparatus. Insert the electrical leads of the conductivity apparatus into the beaker.

c) Turn on the electricity. Record whether you observe conductivity. Dry completely.

Step 5: Determine Whether the Substances Are Ionic or Covalent.

Use the data to determine whether the substances likely have ionic or covalent bonds. Record your conclusions in the last row of the data table. (You may be asked later to justify your conclusions.)

Step 6: Dispose of All Materials in Bulk Containers Provided by Your Teacher.

Data

Record your data either in the data table below or in your lab notebook.

Oil

Cornstarch

Sodium Chloride

Sodium Bicarbonate

State of Matter

Liquid

Solid

Solid

Solid

Appearance and Texture

Yellowish Oil

Amorphous

Beige Powder

White Powder

White Powder

Crystalline Structure (Yes/No)

No-Not a Solid

Not a Solid-But Not Crystalline

Yes

Yes

Solubility in Water

None

None

Yes-All

Yes-Most Dissolved

Conductivity (Yes/No)

No

No

Yes

Yes

Ionic/Covalent Bonds

Covalent

Bonds

Covalent

Bonds

Ionic

Bonds

Ionic

Bonds

Pre-Lab Information

Purpose Explore the properties of chemical substances that can be used to identify the types of bonds in a chemical substance using a laboratory procedure.

Time Approximately 45 minutes

Question Based on a substance’s properties, how can you determine whether its bonds are ionic
or covalent?

Hypothesis If a substance is solid at room temperature, has a crystalline structure, dissolves easily in water, and conducts electricity well, then it likely contains ionic bonds. Otherwise, it likely contains covalent bonds.

Summary You will collect data for the appearance, solubility in water, and conductivity of four substances to determine whether the substances have ionic or covalent bonds.

Safety

§ Always wear safety goggles and a lab gown while performing an experiment.

§ Wear gloves when handling any solid or liquid chemicals.

§ Never smell a chemical directly. Smell a chemical only by wafting.

§ Use caution when handling the conductivity apparatus. Do not touch the exposed leads.

§ Check glassware, such as your beaker, for cracks and chips prior to use.

§ Report all accidents – no matter how big or small – to your teacher.

Procedure

Step 1: Gather Materials.

§ five 25 mL beakers

§ spoon

§ stirring rod

§ 10 mL graduated cylinder

§ distilled water in a wash bottle

§ conductivity apparatus

§ 5 mL oil

§ 2 g cornstarch

§ 2 g sodium chloride

§ 2 g sodium bicarbonate

Repeat steps 2–4 for each of the following: 5 mL of oil and 2g each of cornstarch, sodium chloride, and sodium bicarbonate.

Step 2: Note State and Appearance.

Put the substance in a 25 mL beaker.

Observe and record in the data table its state of matter, appearance, and texture and whether it has a crystalline structure.

Step 3: Determine Solubility in Water.

a) Add distilled water to the beaker until the volume totals 15 mL.

b) Use the stirring rod to stir for 3 minutes.

c) Record the amount of oil that dissolved—all, some, a little, or none.

Step 4: Determine Conductivity.

a) Make sure the conductivity apparatus is ready. The electricity should be turned off.

b) Spray a small amount of distilled water on the electrical leads of the conductivity apparatus. Insert the electrical leads of the conductivity apparatus into the beaker.

c) Turn on the electricity. Record whether you observe conductivity. Dry completely.

Step 5: Determine Whether the Substances Are Ionic or Covalent.

Use the data to determine whether the substances likely have ionic or covalent bonds. Record your conclusions in the last row of the data table. (You may be asked later to justify your conclusions.)

Step 6: Dispose of All Materials in Bulk Containers Provided by Your Teacher.

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