Applying the three R’s to animal experiments in Canada

5. Animals in science

The Canadian Council on Animal Care emphasizes the “3Rs” (Reduction, Refinement and Replacement) to minimize harms to animals used in science, and it requires Animal Care Committees to apply the 3Rs when they evaluate experimental plans. Use your ingenuity (and perhaps some reading on pain and stress in animals) to suggest how the 3Rs might be applied to the following experiment. For each of the 3Rs, suggest how it might be used to improve the experiment or why it cannot be applied. Try to come up with four or five good ideas and state which ‘R’ is being applied in each case. Be sure to comment on all three Rs.

Don't use plagiarized sources. Get Your Custom Essay on
Applying the three R’s to animal experiments in Canada
Get an essay WRITTEN FOR YOU, Plagiarism free, and by an EXPERT!
Order Essay

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) has announced a regulatory amendment that requires all cattle to be ear-tagged with a radio frequency identification tag before leaving their farm in order to establish a trace-back system. In addition, it is common practice to ear-tag dairy calves during the first week of life for identification purposes. Thus, the majority of dairy calves now receive an ear tag in each ear. This involves piercing a 0.5 to 1 cm hole in each ear for the placement of the tags.

The proposed experiment will evaluate whether a local anaesthetic spray (used for athletic injuries), or Emla cream (a topical anaesthetic) is effective in reducing the pain caused by the current method of ear-tagging calves. The calves will be kept in a large group and will be caught individually by a rope lasso thrown around the neck; two experienced animal handlers then catch and restrain each calf while a third handler applies a tag in each ear. In one experiment, half the calves will receive a local anaesthetic spray on both ears before tagging, while the other half receives a control spray on both ears before tagging. A second experiment, half the calves will receive Emla cream in both ears before tagging and the other half will receive a control cream in both ears before tagging. After tagging the animals will be released back to the group.

To monitor pain, observers will watch the animals and record any pain-related behaviour including head-shaking and vocalizing. The animals will also be re-captured 30 minutes after tagging to collect a blood sample that will be used to analyze whether they show higher levels of the stress-related hormone cortisol.

The investigators do not know how many animals will be needed to show a difference, but they expect that calves will be very different in how they respond to tagging, and that the roping itself will cause some vocalizing and other disturbed behaviour. They also expect that different animal handlers may cause different amounts of pain during tagging because of small differences in how they handle the calves.

With these sources of variation, the researchers propose using 100 calves (50 calves per treatment) in each experiment to be sure that any difference between the treatments will be clear.

Marking: Three marks for each of four good ideas for applying the 3Rs intelligently to the proposed experiment. Suggest more than four ideas if you wish, and we will mark the best four. The resulting mark out of 12 will be converted to a mark out of 10.

Top Grade Homework
Order NOW For a 10% Discount!
Pages (550 words)
Approximate price: -

Why Work with Us

Top Quality and Well-Researched Papers

We always make sure that writers follow all your instructions precisely. You can choose your academic level: high school, college/university or professional, and we will assign a writer who has a respective degree.

Professional and Experienced Academic Writers

We have a team of professional writers with experience in academic and business writing. Many are native speakers and able to perform any task for which you need help.

Free Unlimited Revisions

If you think we missed something, send your order for a free revision. You have 10 days to submit the order for review after you have received the final document. You can do this yourself after logging into your personal account or by contacting our support.

Prompt Delivery and 100% Money-Back-Guarantee

All papers are always delivered on time. In case we need more time to master your paper, we may contact you regarding the deadline extension. In case you cannot provide us with more time, a 100% refund is guaranteed.

Original & Confidential

We use several writing tools checks to ensure that all documents you receive are free from plagiarism. Our editors carefully review all quotations in the text. We also promise maximum confidentiality in all of our services.

24/7 Customer Support

Our support agents are available 24 hours a day 7 days a week and committed to providing you with the best customer experience. Get in touch whenever you need any assistance.

Try it now!

Calculate the price of your order

Total price:
$0.00

How it works?

Follow these simple steps to get your paper done

Place your order

Fill in the order form and provide all details of your assignment.

Proceed with the payment

Choose the payment system that suits you most.

Receive the final file

Once your paper is ready, we will email it to you.

Our Services

No need to work on your paper at night. Sleep tight, we will cover your back. We offer all kinds of writing services.

Essays

Essay Writing Service

No matter what kind of academic paper you need and how urgent you need it, you are welcome to choose your academic level and the type of your paper at an affordable price. We take care of all your paper needs and give a 24/7 customer care support system.

Admissions

Admission Essays & Business Writing Help

An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you.

Reviews

Editing Support

Our academic writers and editors make the necessary changes to your paper so that it is polished. We also format your document by correctly quoting the sources and creating reference lists in the formats APA, Harvard, MLA, Chicago / Turabian.

Reviews

Revision Support

If you think your paper could be improved, you can request a review. In this case, your paper will be checked by the writer or assigned to an editor. You can use this option as many times as you see fit. This is free because we want you to be completely satisfied with the service offered.