Fluorosis and its Effect on the Development of Teeth
Fluorosis has a devastating effect on the development of teeth. Most people associate fluoride with the practice of intentionally adding fluoride to public drinking water supplies for the prevention of tooth decay (C. Burt, personal communications, November 5, 2020). However, fluoride can also enter public water systems from natural sources, including runoff from the weathering of fluoride-containing rocks and soils and leaching from soil into groundwater.
Fluorosis is a disease resulting from the deposition of fluorides in the hard and soft tissues of the body due to excessive intake of fluoride through intake of water, food products or industrial pollutants over a period. Dental fluorosis also is the appearance of faint white lines or streaks on the teeth that only occurs when younger children consume too much fluoride, from any source, over long periods when teeth are developing under the gums. The effects of fluoride on enamel formation causes dental fluorosis in man are cumulative, rather than requiring a specific threshold dose, depending on the total fluoride intake from all sources and the duration of fluoride exposure. (Aoba and Fejerskov, 2002).
Fluorosis is not a disease and does not affect the health of your teeth. In most mild cases, the effect is inconspicuous that only a dentist would notice it during an examination. The type of fluorosis found in the United States has no effect on tooth function and may make the teeth more resistant to decay ( https://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/f/fluorosis)
Under the Safe Drinking Water Act, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency requires public water systems to notify its customers if the natural occurring fluoride level exceeds 2.0 mg/L or parts per million. People living in areas where naturally occurring fluoride levels in drinking water exceed 2 parts per million should consider an alternative water source or home water treatments to reduce the risk of fluorosis for young children. https://www.mouthhealthy.org/en/az-topics/f/fluorosis)
Dental Fluorosis: Chemistry and BiologyT Aoba, O Fejerskov, 2002
Fluorosis generally affects the teeth and bones which can lead to major health disorders like dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis and non-skeletal fluorosis. Fluorosis affects men, women and children of all age groups.
The effects on the teeth of dental fluorosis, range from mild to severe. In mild cases, hypo mineralization of the tooth enamel occurs as shown by patches or lacework of opaque, bright white areas that don’t have the same luster as regular enamel. In moderate cases, the teeth develop yellowish or brown stains, giving the teeth a dull or even translucent appearance.
Dental fluorosis is common to children which is characterized by discoloration and disfiguration of their teeth. Skeletal fluorosis, on the other hand, affects the bones and major joints of the body resulting to severe pain, rigidity or stiffness in joints. Severe forms of skeletal fluorosis results in marked disability.
In dental fluorosis, the symptoms range from mild to severe. In mild cases, hypo mineralization of the tooth enamel occurs as shown by patches or lacework of opaque, bright white areas that don’t have the same luster as regular enamel. In moderate cases, the teeth develop yellowish or brown stains, giving the teeth a dull or even translucent appearance. In the rarest and most extreme type of fluorosis, severe staining and a number of pits or small holes are formed in the surface of the teeth. Teeth with severe fluorosis are usually structurally weak and can even be poorly formed.
In skeletal fluorosis, the early symptoms include stiffness and pain in the joints. However, in severe cases, the bone structure may change and ligaments may calcify, resulting to impairment of muscles and pain.
Fluorosis can easily be prevented if diagnosed early and if steps are taken to prevent intake of excess fluoride through provision of safe drinking water, promote nutrition and avoid foods with high fluoride content. Dental and skeletal fluorosis is irreversible and no treatment exists. The only remedy is prevention by keeping fluoride intake within safe limits.
Watch this educational video to know more about Fluorosis:
Ghosh, Aniruddha, et al. “Sources and toxicity of fluoride in the environment.” Research on Chemical
Intermediates 39.7 (2013): 2881-2915.
Research Paper Topic : Fluoride and Its Effect On the Teeth or Fluorosis and its Effect On The Teeeh
2nd set of answers
Fluorosis- It is a condition that comes due to excessive storage of fluorides in the soft and hard body tissues. It is caused by over intake of fluorides by drinking water, industrial pollutants, and food products for a long period. The intake of fluoride affects mainly the bones and teeth.
It is the condition happens to the children during their teeth development at the age of 1 to 8 years. The fluorosis discolours the enamel and disfigures the children’s teeth.
Mild form: the enamel consists of patches; a minute spot looks over the teeth and becomes darker later.
Moderate: the teeth develop a brown or yellow stain that gives the teeth a translucent and dull appearance.
Severe: the condition consists of severe staining in teeth and has pits or small holes in the teeth surface. The teeth that contain severe fluorosis are weak and poorly developed.
Fluoride present on the teeth is tested by hemoglobin and blood, drinking water, urine, and forearm X-ray.
Other tests like chin test, stretch test, and SA/GAG test performed.
Dental carries x-ray cavity is positive.
Dirty teeth are cleaned but the spots on the teeth are not cleaned.
Prognosis: Whitening is a method to clear the stains on teeth. Crowns or bonding are the methods to perform teeth discoloration.
A Crippling disease occurs with deformity and pain leads by excessive fluoride intake. It damages mainly bones, body joints like backbone, knee joints, hip, shoulder, and stiffness and rigidity in joints. Skeletal fluorosis results marked disability.
These are the earlier indication of fluorosis that develops muscular pain and reduce the muscle weakness.
Teeth loss at earlier age, headache, urine comes in reddish yellow colour with less volume, gastro-intestinal problems like diarrhea, constipation, bloody stool, stomach pain, blood vessel and ligament calcification, reduces hemoglobin level, and it might affect fetus.
These are the earlier symptoms which are not specific, but the earlier identification is helpful to detect the disease level.
Fluorosis is prevented by reducing the intake of fluoride content water, and foods. It can be removed by utilizing different water sources, by eliminating the fluoride content in the water, and by increasing the nutritional status of an individual or the populations at risk.
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Here are the Documents for the research paper as we discussed.
Enclosed are the instructions for the research paper as well as my outline for the topic as to what should be included in this paper. Attached is the Professor’s instructions on how
the paper should be formatted. Hope this email is not sounding chaotic as my mind is right now.
1. Discuss what fluorosis is.
2. How fluorosis happens/ occurs
3. Talk about the different types of fluorosis – its a huge spectrum:
– very mild fluorosis
– very severe fluorosis
4. Talk about its prevalence in the United states
5. The effects on the teeth.
6. Use expert opinions
7. Do not use a lot of quotes. Use direct 3 quotes from the writers – only 2 sentences long.
8. Can use International Journal of Dental Hygiene or peer review articles – use articles past 2012 – (6 articles)
9. Analyze data and paraphrase.
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