Racial Formation (pp. 14–23) Michael Omi and Howard Winant
1. According to Michael Omi and Howard Winant, in what ways has state law “quantified racial identity”?
2. According to Omi and Winant, what is the significance of persistent racial ideologies in the United States? How is the presence of a “system of racial meanings and stereotypes” different from more particular racial meanings, stereotypes, and myths?
Derailing Rebellion: Inventing White Privilege (pp. 24–29) Pem Davidson Buck
3. According to Buck, how was law critical to “the maintenance of whiteness and…the production of slaves”? How did this impact the distribution of wealth in the United States, beginning in the colonial period?
4. According to Buck, what are the key factors that helped to establish structural privileges for whites, what Buck describes as “the benefits of being white”?
“Night to His Day”: The Social Construction of Gender (pp. 40–47) Judith Lorber
5. Explain the important concept doing gender in Judith Lorber’s “‘Night to His Day’: The Social Construction of Gender.” What is revealed by emphasizing the act of gendering?
6. What is important about seeing gender as a social institution?
The Invention of Heterosexuality (pp. 48–58) Jonathan Ned Katz
7. According to Katz, what is revealed by studying the history of sexuality and, in particular, heterosexuality?
Masculinity as Homophobia: Fear, Shame, and Silence in the Construction of Gender Identity (pp. 59–69) Michael S. Kimmel
8. Identify and briefly discuss the two prevailing models of manhood in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
9. Identify and briefly discuss what Kimmel describes as the emergent third vision of masculinity.
Debunking the Pathology of Poverty (pp. 83–85) Susan Greenbaum
10.What does Daniel Patrick Moynihan argue about poverty in his infamous 1965 report, “The Negro Family: The Case for National Action”?
11.According to Greenbaum, what cultural practices cause recessions? Name an example from the text.
Domination and Subordination (pp. 95–100) Jean Baker Miller
12.According to Jean Baker Miller, what does consideration of “difference” in the abstract sense reveal about domination and subordination?
13.How does permanent inequality differ from temporary inequality? What criteria does she give as examples of this?
Defining Racism: “Can We Talk?” (pp. 111–118) Beverly Daniel Tatum
14.What do the examples of childhood development reveal about when and how children internalize racial imagery?
15.Briefly explain the concept of internalized oppression as Tatum discusses it. 16.How does Tatum answer the question: “Can people of color be racist?”
Homophobia as a Weapon of Sexism (pp. 157–165) Suzanne Pharr
17.What is the “societal promise of survival” that keeps sexism in place?
18.According to Pharr, how does heterosexism “create the climate for homophobia?
White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack (pp. 184–188) Peggy McIntosh
19.What is the “invisible knapsack”? How does it work? 20.What is McIntosh’s overall goal in this essay?
The Case of Sharon Kowalski and Karen Thompson: Ableism, Heterosexism, and Sexism (pp. 149–156) Joan L. Griscom
21.In the story of Sharon Kowalsi and Karen Thompson, what are three of the modes of oppression in operation?
Class in America (pp. 166–183) Gregory Mantsios
22.According to Gregory Mantsios, why do people in the United States find it difficult to talk about class?
23.How does Mantsios distinguish between the categories of “myth” and “reality” in his essay? What does this distinction reveal?
My Class Didn’t Trump My Race: Using Oppression to Face Privilege (pp. 189–195) Robin J. DiAngelo
24.What are some of the classist messages she received when she was young? How can these messages silence her in speaking up against racism, and what is the impact of the silence?
25.What does DiAngelo offer as two interwoven tasks for “Whites to unravel [their] internalized racial dominance”?
Reading 3.3. Undocumented: How Immigration Became Illegal (pp. 224–235)
26.Aviva Chomsky states, “…we created illegal immigration by fostering a global system that bases the prosperity for the few on the exploitation of the many and enforcing it, in the modern era, through borders and exclusive citizenship.” (p. 234) Explain what Chomsky means by addressing, “…the prosperity for the few on the exploitation of the many…” portion of the quote.
Reading 3.9. Black Ethnics: Race, Immigration, and the Pursuit of the American Dream (pp. 251–257) Christina M. Greer
27.How has the black/white racial paradigm affected foreign-born blacks? What is the duality that they experience?
Reading 3.10. The Myth of the Model Minority (pp. 258–264) Noy Thrupkaew
28.Briefly summarize what Thrupkaew says about the myth of the model minority
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