Unit II Free Response Questions

Answer the free response question in paragraph form. Make sure you define the term and explain how it relates to the question in the experiment. Please view the student sample provided.

Student Sample AP Psych FRQ 2

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FRQ #2

An Independent Variable is the factor whose effect is being studied in an experiment. In this experiment, the independent variable would be the Chantix pill. A Dependent Variable is the outcome factor that was changed because of the manipulations of the independent variable. The dependent variable in this experiment would be whether or not the participants quit smoking after taking or not taking Chantix. Random Assignment is the process of assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance to minimize differences in the groups. By randomly assigning all the participants in this experiment to different groups, we would ensure that we have a representative sample of smokers in both groups which would isolate the independent variable. An Experimental Group is the group that is being exposed to the treatment . The experimental group in this experiment would be the group that is taking Chantix, which is the independent variable. A Placebo is a harmless medicine or procedure prescribed to make sure participants aren’t producing experimental results through expectations alone. In this experiment, the control group would receive a sugar pill to ensure that results aren’t caused by a placebo effect. A Blind Study is when the participants do not know which treatment they are receiving to prevent a placebo effect. In this experiment, making sure that both the experimental and control groups each do not know which treatment they are receiving eliminates any chance of a placebo effect. A Double-Blind is when both the researchers and the participants do not know which treatment they are receiving. Doing this in the experiment would make sure that researchers won’t have a preferential bias for one group because they want a certain group to do better to achieve ideal results. A Control Group is the group that serves as a comparison for examining the effect of the experiment. A control group in the experiment is necessary to evaluate if Chantix had a positive effect on the experimental group by comparing it to the control group. Ethical Considerations are moral principles that researchers are obligated to follow when experimenting on their participants. In this experiment, after the experiment is over, the researchers are obligated to inform the participants on whether they were in the experimental group or the control group. This would be so participants in the control group who couldn’t quit smoking because they were going cold turkey do not suffer any mental damage or lower self-esteem over not being able to quit when they thought they were receiving medication.. Statistically Significant Results are outcomes that show that there was almost no chance that the results were caused by chance. In this experiment, if ~35% of participants in the control group were able to quit smoking while ~60% of participants in the experimental group quit smoking, the experiment would have achieved statistically significant results and show that Chantix does help patients quit smoking.

Research Methods: Design an Experiment
Design an experiment that tests the vaccine for Covide 19 virus. Use the following terms in your response:

Independent Variables
Dependent Variables
Random assignment
Experimental group
Blind Study
Double Blind
Control grouping
Ethical considerations
An interpretation of what statistically significant results would mean for this experiment

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