Intro to World History 2: The Nineteenth Century

Political Cartoon showing how European countries slid into war in 1914, source:

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The nineteenth century is one of the most interesting and dynamic centuries for historians. It was a period of time when ethnic nationalism threatened the existing monarchical system of Europe and saw various ethnic groups rise up in revolt and protestations against their governments in pursuit of creating their own national state. At the same time, we see European and American attempts to establish global empires, especially in Asia and Africa.

The first half of the twentieth century marked the complete change in Europe’s geopolitical map, the end of monarchical rule and their global colonies. But perhaps even more significant was the evolution of anarchism, socialism, fascism, communism, and democracy that had worldwide impact on every facet of life. Presented in this unit will be an analysis of these changes centring on the two world wars of 1914-1918 and 1939-1945. In fact, some historians are of the opinion that the Second World War was nothing more that the continuation of the First.

Presented below are recommended references that you should selectively consider using as resources for the writing of this assignment’s essay.

Reference Material for the 19th century


Arthur Berriedale Keith, The Belgian Congo and the Berlin Act, (Oxford: At the Clarendon

Press, 1919).

Albert Sorel, The Eastern Question in the Eighteenth Century: The Partition of Poland

and the Treaty of Kainardji, (London: Methuen & Co. 1898).

Mark R. Stoneman, The Bavarian Army & French Civilians in the War of 1870-1871,

(University of Augsburg, 1994).

General 19th Century

Eric Helleiner, ‘Economic Nationalism as a Challenge to Economic Liberalism? Lessons

from the 19th Century’, International Studies Quarterly, (Vol. 46 No. 3,

September 2002), pp. 307-329.

W. Wilson Lyon, ‘Dictatorship and Democracy in the 19th Century’, The American

Scholar, (Vol. 8 No. 4, Autumn 1939), pp. 445-455.

Eric Helleiner, ‘Economic Nationalism as a Challenge to Economic Liberalism? Lessons

from the 19th Century’, International Studies Quarterly, (Vol. 46 No. 3,

September 2002), pp. 307-329.

W. Wilson Lyon, ‘Dictatorship and Democracy in the 19th Century’, The American

Scholar, (Vol. 8 No. 4, Autumn 1939), pp. 445-455.

Eastern Europe & Ethnicity

Oscar Halecki, ‘Why was Poland Partitioned?’, Slavic Review, (Vol. 22 No. 3, September

1963), pp. 432-441.

W.N. Medlicott, ‘Austria-Hungary and the War Danger of 1887’, The Slavonic Review,

(Vol. 6 No. 17, December 1927), pp. 437-441.

Slobodan Naumovic, ‘Identity Creator in Identity Crisis: Reflections on the Politics of

Serbian Ethnology’, Anthropological Journal on European Cultures, (Vol. 8 No. 2,

The Politics of Anthropology at Home II, 1999), pp. 39-128.

Darius Staliunas, ‘Between Russification and Divide and Rule: Russian Nationality Policy
in the Western Borderlands in mid-19th Century’, Jahrbücher für Geschichte
Osteuropas, (Neue Folge, Bd. 55 H. 3, 2007), pp. 357-373.


Barton C. Hacker, ‘The Weapons of the West: Military Technology and Modernization in

19th-Century China and Japan’, Technology and Culture, (Vol. 18 No. 1, January

1977), pp. 43-55.

Mojmir Križan, ‘New Serbian Nationalism and the Third Balkan War’, Studies in East

European Thought’, (Vol. 46 No. ½, June 1994), 47-68.

Robert H. Lauer, ‘Temporality and Social Change: The Case of 19th Century China and

Japan’, The Sociological Quarterly, (Vol. 14 No. 4, Autumn 1973), pp. 451-464.

Gilbert Reid, ‘The Powers and the Partition of China’, The North American Review, (Vol.

170 No. 522, May 1900), pp. 634-641.

Central Europe & Nationalism

Ronald C. Monticone, ‘Nationalities Problems in the Austro-Hungarian Empire’, The

Polish Review, (Vol. 13 No. 4, Autumn 1968), pp. 110-125.

Hagen Schulze, ‘German Unification in the Context of European History’, German

Studies Review, (Vol. 15, German Identity, Winter 1992), pp. 7-20.

Michael Stürmer, ‘Bismarck in Perspective’, Central European History, (Vol. 4 No. 4,

1870/71, December 1971), 291-331.

References addressing WWI


Claude A. Campbell, ‘Economic Errors of the Treaty of Versailles’, The Southwestern Social Science Quarterly, (Vol. 23 No. 2, September 1942), pp. 160-165.

Philip M. Flammer, ‘The Schlieffen Plan and Plan XVII: A Short Critique’, Military Affair, (Vol. 30 No. 4, Winter 1966-1967), pp. 207-212.


Rosa Luxemburg, The Russian Revolution, (New York: Workers Age Publishers, 1940).

Francis J. Tschan,, The First and Second World Wars, War Background Edition of Western Civilization, (Chicago IL: J.B. Lippincott Company).

Essay Assignment

The 19th century saw a dramatic change and growth in empires that some contributed to international conflicts and eventually WWI (1914-1918). In an essay of between 750 and 1000 words you are identify how European Empires and their policies led to the First World

War. Specifically, I want you to identify one factor that you think was a primary cause of the

War. I do not want you to summarize articles or books or provide a description of events that led to the War, but to select a specific factor and develop it in your essay, hence, I am looking for your opinion that must be supported by appropriate references via footnoting and an appropriate bibliography..

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